One of the most popular and preferred foods in the UK is walnuts. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Oxford Academic: walnuts can partially substitute saturated fatty acids, lowering total plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Walnut eating has positive impacts on human health that may be observed both with short-term consumption and long-term consumption. Studies with daily walnut intakes of between 21 and 75 g have demonstrated improved lipid profiles and endothelial function as well as a decrease in cardiovascular risk. Consuming walnuts appears to be a tactic to enhance diet quality, modify dietary nutrients, and swap out less nutrient-dense foods. For instance, adding 75 g/day of walnuts to the diet decreased calorie consumption while also adding healthy elements including PUFA, omega-3 fatty acids, and dietary fibre.'
In the first three to six months, eating 30 g of walnuts as part of a low-fat diet has the greatest benefits on dietary PUFA, with higher decreases in fasting insulin levels (p = 0.046) and body weight (p = 0.028). Walnuts supply less accessible energy (21%) than expected by the Atwater factors when included in a varied diet for healthy individuals, which may assist to explain why nut eaters do not acquire a lot of weight. The alteration of satiation by nuts is another possible mechanism that might account for these findings. Within three to four days of initiating an isocaloric diet comprising 48 g of walnuts per day, a clinical experiment revealed an improvement in satiation and a sensation of fullness; However, no changes were seen in participants with metabolic syndrome in terms of their resting metabolic expenditure, insulin resistance, or hormones that are known to regulate satiety.
When compared to an ad libitum diet without walnuts, endothelial function was enhanced in type 2 diabetics who had a 56 g/day enriched walnut diet for eight weeks. Canales et al. also looked at how walnuts affected risk factors for coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. The researchers found lower levels of soluble vascular and intercellular cell adhesion molecules (sVCAM-1 and SOCOM-1, respectively), a potent pro-inflammatory factor, and higher activity of paraoxonase, a protein that protects against cardiovascular disease. The researchers also found lower levels of leukotriene B4, a powerful pro-inflammatory factor. In another research, overweight persons with visceral obesity who consumed 56 g of walnuts per day for eight weeks had improved endothelium function compared to those who had an ad libitum diet without walnut supplements. Similar to almonds, despite the huge amount of calories in the walnut dose, weight gain was not noticed in the walnut therapy, which oddly was linked to a decrease in waist circumference.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition: 56 g of walnuts consumed daily by obese persons with visceral adiposity improves endothelial function. Walnuts do not cause weight gain when added to a diet. It is necessary to do more research on the possible benefits of eating walnuts for preventing diabetes and CVD.
Low levels of adiponectin have been linked to obesity and the buildup of visceral fat. Compared to meals enhanced with butter and olive oil, meals with walnuts boosted the postprandial adiponectin response in healthy young people. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-6 postprandial gene expression were lower as a result of this finding. Similarly, short-term walnut eating (48 g/day for four days) enhanced the lipid profile, specifically Apo A-concentrations and adiponectin concentrations (which increased by 15%).
ScienceDirect: Walnuts' long-term inclusion in a regular diet positively changed the plasma lipid profile. Without altering the usual diet, walnut supplementation in the amount of 12% of daily energy intake for 12 months reduced TC and triglyceride concentrations. Walnuts' positive benefits were more pronounced in participants with greater baseline TC concentrations. As a result, as compared to a regular diet, the TC and triglyceride concentrations in free-living people supplemented with walnuts were considerably lower without correcting for body weight. In a walnut-supplemented diet, LDL-c was likewise decreased after correcting for body weight. In a crossover trial, TC, LDL-c, and LDL/HDL-c levels decreased when walnuts, almonds, or virgin olive oil were substituted for 40% of the fat in the Mediterranean diet for four weeks each. HDL-c concentrations, however, showed no changes.
Antioxidants are found in walnuts. A clinical experiment that examined the acute and chronic effects of consuming 21 or 42 g of raw walnuts per day for six weeks found that only chronic consumption improved red blood cell linoleic acid and pyridoxal phosphate concentrations, whereas acute consumption increased total plasma thiols. Torabian et al. (2009) conducted research with healthy participants to examine the antioxidant benefits of a meal including walnut (81 g) or almond (91 g), with nuts contributing 75% of the calorie intake. Walnut meal had a greater plasma polyphenol content at 90 minutes than almond meal.
Consuming 75 g/day of tocopherol-rich walnuts helped men at risk for prostate cancer have better prostatic and vascular biomarkers. Following eight weeks of supplementation, it was also able to lower the alpha and gamma-tocopherol ratio, raise serum gamma-tocopherol, and show a tendency towards an increase in the ratio of free prostate-specific antigen (PSA)/total PSA, indicating that walnuts may improve vascular and prostate health biomarkers.
Collectively, studies have observed a reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors with walnut consumption of around 21–91 g/day for short- and long-term periods. Therefore, the consumption of walnuts may be related to the reduction of cardiovascular risk both by improvement in lipid profile and reduction of inflammatory and atherogenic processes. The reduction of lipid peroxidation and the improvement of endothelial function are associated with a high concentration of antioxidants present in walnuts, such as α-linolenic acid and alpha-tocopherol.
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